八卦 trigram

阴、阳 yin, yang

道 Dao(cf. logo),  Daoism(Taoism)

江湖(世界) the jianghu World (the traits’ world)

上火 excessive internal heat

儒学 Confucianism

红学(《红楼梦》研究) redology

世外桃源 Shangri-la or Arcadia

禅宗 Zen Buddhism

禅 dhyana; dhgaya

混沌 chaos

四谛 Four Noble Truth

八正道 Eightfold Path

无常 anity

五行说 Theory of Five Elements

无我 anatman

坐禅 metta or transcendental meditation

空 sunyata

虚无 nothingness

2 、中华民族的喜庆节日(Chinese Festival)

国庆节 National Day

中秋节 Mid-Autumn Festival

春节 Spring Festival

元宵节 Lantern Festival

儿童节 Children’s Day

端午节 Dragon Boat Festival

妇女节 Women’s Day

泼水节 Water-Splashing Day

教师节 Teachers’ Day

五四青年节 Youth Day

3、中国独特的传统饮食(Unique Traditional Chinese Foods)

馄饨 wonton

锅贴 guotie (fried jiaozi)

花卷 steamed twisted rolls

套餐 set meal

盒饭 box lunch; Chinese take-away

米豆腐 rice tofu

魔芋豆腐 konjak tofu

米粉 rice noodles

冰糖葫芦 a stick of sugar-coated haws (or apples,etc。)

火锅 chafing dish

八宝饭 eight-treasure rice pudding

粉丝 glass noodles

豆腐脑 jellied bean curd

4 、中国新兴事物(Newly Sprouted Things)

十五计划 the 10th Five-Year Plan

中国电脑联网 Chinanet

三峡工程 the Three Gorges Project

希望工程 Project Hope

京九铁路 Beijing  Kowloon Railway

扶贫工程 Anti-Poverty Project

菜篮子工程 Vegetable Basket Project

温饱工程 Decent-Life Project

安居工程 Economy Housing Project

扫黄 Porn-Purging Campaign

西部大开发 Go-West Campaign

开放 kaifang (Chinese openness to the outside world)

不搞一刀切 no imposing uniformity on …

合乎国情,顺乎民意 to conform with the national conditions and the will of the people

乱摊派,乱收费 imposition of arbitrary quotas and service charge

治则兴,乱则衰 Order leads to prosperity and chaos to decline

5 、特有的一些汉语词汇

双喜 double happiness(中),a doubled stroke of luck(英)

小品 witty skits

相声 cross-talk

噱头;掉包袱 gimmick, stunt

夜猫子 night people; night-owls

本命年 this animal year of sb.

处世之道 philosophy of life

姻缘 yinyuan(prefixed fate of marriage)

还愿 redeem a wish (vows)

6 、具有文化特色的现代表述

中国大陆 Mainland China

红宝书 little red book

红色中国 socialist China

四化 Four Modernizations

终生职业 job-for-life

铁饭碗 iron rice bowl

关系户 closely-related units

外出打工人员 migrant workers

关系网 personal nets, closely-knitted guild

五讲(讲文明、讲礼貌、讲卫生、讲秩序、讲道德):the Five Merits focus on decorum, manners, hygiene, disciplines and morals

四美(心灵美、语言美、行为美、环境美): the Four Virtues are golden heart, refined language, civilized behavior, and green environment

基层监督 grass-roots supervision

基础税率 base tariff level

婚介所 matrimonial agency

婚外恋 extramarital love

婚纱摄影 bride photo

黑心棉 shoddy cotton

机器阅卷 machine scoring

即开型奖券 scratch-open ticket/lottery

集中精力把经济建设搞上去 go all out for economic development

价格听证会 public price hearings

甲A球队 Division A Soccer Team

家政服务 household management service

加强舆论监督 ensure the correct orientation is maintained in public opinion

假帐 accounting fraud

叫板 challenge;  pick a quarrel

矫情 use lame arguments

渐进式台独 gradual Taiwan independence

借调 temporarily transfer

扩大中等收入者比重 Raise the proportion of the middle-income group。

扩大内需,刺激消费expand domestic demand and consumption

大锅饭 getting an equal share regardless of the work done,  communal pot

伤痕文学 scar literature or the literature of the wounded

铁交椅 iron (lifetime) post’s; guaranteed leading post

脱贫 to shake off poverty; anti-poverty

7 、中国古代独特事物(Unique Ancient Chinese Items)

宣纸 rice paper

衙门 yamen

叩头 kowtow


牌楼 pailou;pai-loo

武术 wushu(Chinese Martial Arts)

功夫 kungfu ;kung fu

中庸 the way of medium (cf. Golden Means)

中和 harmony (zhonghe)

孝顺 to show filial obedience

孝子 dutiful son

家长 family head

三纲:君为臣纲,父为子纲,夫为妻纲 three cardinal guides: ruler guides subject, father guides son husband guides wife

五常:仁、义、理、智、信 five constant virtues: benevolence (humanity), righteousness, propriety, wisdom and fidelity

八股文 eight-legged essays

多子多福:The more sons/children, the more blessing/ great happiness

养儿防老:raising children for old age

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