1. The American economic system is, organized around a basically private-enterprise, market- oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most.
2. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it.
3. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product.
4. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual.
5. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employers are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns.
6. Numerous other commercial enterprises, from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers.
7. Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences.
8. The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities.
9. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices.
10. Apart from the fact that twenty-seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements.
11. If its message were confined merely to information and that in itself would be difficult if not impossible to achieve, for even a detail such as the choice of the color of a shirt is subtly persuasive-advertising wound be so boring that no one wound pay any attention.
12. The workers who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new language-all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for there efforts.
13. As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable.
14. The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated, time–consuming, and sometimes even overwhelming.
[参考译文] 现在每个人能够得到的信息比任何时代的人都多，而找到与他／她的特定问题相关的那一点信息的任务不仅复杂、耗时，有时甚至令人难以招 。
15. Expertise can be shared world wide through teleconferencing, and problems in dispute can be settled without the participants leaving their homes and/or jobs to travel to a distant conference site.
16. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B type fellows.
17. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your “wares” and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.
18. The Corporation will survive as a publicly funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programs are now the subject of a nation wide debate in Britain.
19. The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC–including ordinary listeners and viewer to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping.
20. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large profess signal element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.
[参考译文] 这种变化通过引入许多的专业因素从而适应了这个新时代的技术要求，并且它（这种变化）防止了效率的降低。这种效率的降低在精力充沛的创业者之后的第二代和第三代人（领导公司）的时候，经常会毁掉那些 家族公司的财富。
21. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners: and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business.
[参考译文] 这样巨大而非个人的对资金和产业的操纵极大地增加了股东的数量和他们作为一个阶级的重要性，这是国家生活中代表不负责任的财富的一个因素，这种财富不但远离了土地和土地拥有者的责任，而且几乎同样与 公司的负责任的管理毫无关系。
22. Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne sprang up to house large “comfortable” classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders’ meeting to dictate their orders to the management.
23. The “shareholders” as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labor was not good.
24. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away.
25. Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country’s excellent elementary schools: a labor force that welcomed the new technology； the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, “spatial” thinking about things technological.
26. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, “A technologist thinks about objects that can not be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions: they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process…The designer and the inventor.., are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist”.
[参考译文] 正如尤金・弗格森所指出的那样：“一个技术专家思考那些不能被简化成 能被清楚的语言描述的东西。这些东西在他的思维中是通过一种视觉的、非语言表述的过程宋处理的……设计者和发明者……能够在他们的脑中 装配并操作那些还不存在的装置。”
27. Robert Fulton once wrote, “The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheel, etc, like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea”.
28. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programs and, tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise.
29. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: “This book stands for reason itself.” And so it does-and all wound be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate.
30. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia’s Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die.
31. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back.
32. In Australia- where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their partother states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia.
33. There are, of course, exceptions. Small–minded officials, rude waiters, and ill mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment.
34. We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves.
[参考译文] 我们生活在一种药品（毒品）的医学用途和社会用途都很广泛的社会里： 一片用来止头痛的阿斯匹林，一些用来社交的葡萄酒，早上自己提提神所喝的咖啡，一支用来定神的香烟。
35. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued.
36. “Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers?” Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. “You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our children as well?”
37. “The test of any democratic society, he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column’, “lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be…”
38. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month’s stockholders’ meeting, Levin asserted that “music is not the cause of society’s ills” and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students.
39. Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as “steering the economy to a soft landing” of “a touch on the brakes” , makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth.
40. Economists have been particularly surprised by favorable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since, conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially America’s, have little productive slack.
41. The most thrilling explanation is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have upended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation.
42. The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left-all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.
43. New ways of organizing the workplace–all that re-engineering and downsizing–are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training,
44. His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long-term profitability.
[参考译文] 他的同事迈克尔・比尔说，有太多的公司已经用一种机械的方式实行公 司内部的重新设计，在没有充分考虑长期赢利的能力下削减了成本。
45. Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as “The Flight from S.cience and Reason” , held in New York City in 1995, and “Science in the Age of (Mis) information, which assembled last June near Buffalo.
[参考译文] 科学卫士们在会议上也表述了他们的关注，比如1995年在纽约市举行的 “逃离科学与理性”会议，以及去年6月在布法罗附近召开的“（错误） 信息时代的科学”会议。
46. A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.
47. The ‘true enemies of science, argues Paul Ehrllch of Stanford University, a pioneer of environmental studies, are those who question the evidence supporting global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of industrial growth.
48. This development–and its strong implication for US politics and economy in years ahead–has enthroned the South as America’s most densely populated region for the first time in the history of the nation’s head counting.
49. Often they choose–and still are choosing–somewhat colder climates such as Oregon, Idaho and Alaska in order to escape smog.crime and other plagues of urbanization in the Golden State.
50. As a result, California’s growth rate dropped during the 1970’s, to 18.5 percent–little more than two thirds the 1960’s growth figure and considerably below that of other Western states.