51. Unlike most of the world’s volcanoes, they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth’s surface; on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate.
52. The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of the plates with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth’s interior.
53. As the dome grows, it develops seed fissures (cracks); in at least a few cases the continentmay break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean.
54. While warnings are often appropriate and necessary–the dangers of drug interactions, for example–and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn’t clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured.
55. At the same time, the American Law Institute–a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight–issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones.
56. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to “push” information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers.
57. The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers.
[参考译文] 像Virtual Vineyards，Amazon.com这样的先驱网站表明，一个将交互性、热情服务和安全性合理结合以销售同类商品的网址是可以吸引网上客户注意的。
58. An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students’ career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical education reform.
59. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently access how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself.
60. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations.
61.But,for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not.
62. Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment-although no one had proposed to do so–and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning.
[参考译文] 他宣布自己反对使用这种非同寻常的畜牧繁殖技术来克隆人类，并下令：不准联邦政府基金用于做此类试验。尽管还没有人建议这么做，他还请一个以普林斯顿大学校长哈罗得・夏皮罗为首的独立的专家组在90 天内向白宫汇报关于制定有关克隆人的国家政策的建议。
63. In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be “morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning”.
64. Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos (the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo’s life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research.
65. If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents.
66. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope.
67. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the “odd balls” among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who “work well with the team.”
68. The grand mediocrity of today–everyone being the same in survival and number of off- spring–means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in upper-middle-class India compared to the tribe.
69. When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.
70. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right–it can hardly be classed as Literature.
71. But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river–and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers, “Pluff! Pluff!” A hundred and eighty-five kilograms.”
72. The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male- domiated job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Janpan’s rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs.
73. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World WarII had weakened the “Japanese morality of respect for parents”.
74. With economic growth has come centralization: fully 76 percent of Japan’s 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, tow-generation households.
75. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least a-mong them.
76. Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs–the locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago.
77. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools.
78. No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professional and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word “amateur” does carry a connotation that person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not share its values.
79. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United kingdom.
80. A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper.
81. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for a mateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the 19th century and then by several local geological journals in the 20th century.
82. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way.
83. Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low–level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of head–scratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want.
84. I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&M wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers’ demands.
85. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress promoted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming “I wanted to spend more time with my family.”
86. I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of “juggling your life”, and making the alternative move into “downshifting brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status.
87. While in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline-after the mass redundancies caused by downsizing in the late ‘ 80s-and is still linked to the politics of thrift, in Britain, at least among the middle-class down shifters of my acquaintance, we have different reasons for seeking to simplify our lives.
88. For the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the’ 80s, down-shifting in the mid’ 90s is not so much a search for the mythical good lift-growing your own organic vegetables, and risking turning into one-as a personal recognition of your limitations.
89. If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it’ 11 be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman’ s notorious bad taste in ties.
90. There are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy–far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their handsaone
91. But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least’ a few decisions for them- selves-goals that pose a real challenge.
92. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd.
93. The OECD estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25—0.5% of GDP.