保险业 \\ The insurance industry

保证重点支出 \\ Ensure funding for priority areas

被兼并或挤掉 \\ annexed or forced out of business

补发拖欠的养老金 \\ Clear up pension payments in arrears

不良贷款 \\ Non-performing loan

层层转包和违法分保 \\ Multi-level contracting and illegal subcontracting

产值 \\ output value

城乡信用社 \\ Credit Cooperative in both urban and rural areas

城镇居民最低生活保障 \\ A minimum standard of living for city residents

城镇职工医疗保险制度 \\ The system of medical insurance for urban workers

抽样调查 \\ data from the sample survey

出口信贷 \\ Export credit


to establish at a preliminary level a new system of socialist planned commodity economy

贷款质量 \\ Loan quality

贷款质量五级分类办法 \\ The five-category assets classification for bank loans

第二产业 \\ secondary industry

第三产业 \\ tertiary industry

第一产业 \\ primary industry

独资企业 \\ wholly foreign owned/funded enterprise

发电量 \\ electric energy production

发挥市场的调节作用 \\ to give play to the regulatory role of the market

发展过快 \\ excessive growth

防范和化解金融风险 \\ Take precautions against and reduce financial risks

防洪工程 \\ Flood-prevention project

非法外汇交易 \\ Illegal foreign exchange transaction

非公有成分 \\ non-public sectors

非贸易收汇 \\ Foreign exchange earnings through non trade channels

非银行金融机构 \\ Non-bank financial institutions

费改税 \\ Transform administrative fees into taxes

分配形式 \\ forms of distribution

风险资金 \\ risk funds

副业 \\ sideline production


Reform is “the self-perfection and self-development of the socialist system.”

改革重点转移到城市 \\ the focus of reform is shifted to the cities

改善经济环境 \\ improve economic environment

搞活企业 \\ invigorate/ revitalize/ rejuvenate enterprises


from each according to his ability, to each according to his work/needs

跟踪审计 \\ Follow-up auditing

工程监理制度 \\ The monitoring system for projects

公有制 \\ public ownership

鼓励 \\ give incentive to

管理不善 \\ poor management

国际收支 \\ international balance of payments


The state ensures the consolidation and growth of the state economy.


The basic task of the nation is to concentrate its efforts on socialist modernization.

国民生产总值 \\ GNP (Gross National Product)

国内生产总值 \\ GDP (Gross Domestic Product)


The state economy is the sector of socialist economy under ownership by the whole people; it is the leading force in the national economy.

国有资产安全 \\ The safety of state-owned assets

过度开垦 \\ Excess reclamation

合同管理制度 \\ The contract system for governing projects

合资企业 \\ joint venture

合作企业 \\ cooperative enterprise

和平演变 \\ peaceful evolution

宏观控制 \\ exercise macro-control

机电产品 \\ Electromechanical products

积极的财政政策 \\ Pro-active fiscal policy

基本生活费 \\ Basic allowances

基石 \\ cornerstone

计划经济和市场调节相结合的机制 \\ a mechanism that combines planned economy and market regulation

家庭联产责任承包制 \\ family-contract responsibility system

结售汇制度 \\ The system of exchange settlement and sales

解除劳动关系 \\ Sever labor relations

解放生产力 \\ liberate/unshackle/release the productive forces

金融监管责任制 \\ The responsibility system for financial supervision

经济安全 \\ Economic security

经济和法律的杠杆 \\ economic and legal leverages

经济计划和市场调节相结合 \\ to combine economic planning with market regulation

经济结构改革。 \\ reform in economic structure

经营机制 \\ operative mechanism

精华、精粹、实质 \\ quintessence

举措 \\ move

靠扩大财政赤字搞建设 \\ To increase the deficit to spend more on development

扣除物价上涨部分 \\ price increase are deducted (excluded)

扩大国内需求 \\ The expansion of domestic demand

拉动经济增长 \\ Fuel economic growth

厉行节约,反对浪费 \\ to practice strict economy and combat waste

粮食仓库 \\ Grain depot

粮食收储企业 \\ Grain Collection and storage enterprise

粮食收购资金实行封闭运行 \\ Closed operation of grain purchase funds

粮食销售市场 \\ Grain sales market

劣质工程 \\ Shoddy engineering

林业 \\ forestry

零售 \\ retail

流通制度 \\ circulation system

乱收费、乱摊派、乱罚款 \\ Arbitrary charges, fund-raising, quotas and fines

农业 \\ farming


Obtain foreign currency under false pretenses, not turn over foreign currency owed to the government and illegal arbitrage


to cancel the state’s monopoly on the purchase and marketing of agricultural products

全民所有制 \\ ownership by the entire/whole people

全体会议 \\ plenary session

人均国民生产总值 \\ per capita GNP

人均收入 \\ per capita income

融资渠道 \\ Financing channels

善于接受的 \\ receptive

商品经济 \\ commodity economy

商业信贷原则 \\ The principles for commercial credit

社会保险机构 \\ Social security institution


The main goals of socialism are the liberation and development of productive forces, the elimination of exploitation and polarization between the rich and the poor and the final achievement of common prosperity.

社会主义集体所有制 \\ socialist collective ownership


The basis of the socialist economic system is socialist public ownership of the means of production, namely, ownership by the whole people and collective ownership by the working people.

生产关系 \\ relations of production

生产力 \\ productive forces

生产资料 \\ means of production

生活资料 \\ means of livelihood/subsistence

剩余劳动力 \\ surplus labor

失业保险金 \\ Unemployment insurance benefits

实际增长率 \\ actual growth rate

实事求是 \\ seek truth from facts

实在的 \\ tangible

使负担 \\ be saddled with

试一下 \\ have a go (at sth.)

输入活力 \\ bring vigor into

私有制 \\ private ownership


As the reform further develops, the scope for mandatory state plans will be narrowed, while the scope for market forces will be enlarged.

偷税、骗税、逃税、抗税 \\ Tax evasion, tax fraud and refusal pay taxes

投入 \\ input

外汇收支 \\ Foreign exchange revenue and spending

外资企业 \\ foreign-funded enterprise


The criterion for our judgment is whether the move facilitates the development of socialist productive forces, whether it helps increase the overall national strength of a socialist country, and whether it brings about better living standards.

畜牧业 \\ animal husbandry


to warn people of the influence of both the Right and the “Left” deviations, particularly of the deep-rooted “Left” influence.

一个中心、两个基本点 \\ one central task and two basic points


thecentral task refers to economic construction and two basic points are the four cardinal principles – adherence to the socialist road, to Communist Party leadership, to the people’s democratic dictatorship and to Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought – and persisting in reform and opening.

引进、输入 \\ importation

引入歧途 \\ lead one to a blind alley

营业发达的公司 \\ going concerns

优化经济结构 \\ optimize the economic structure

有色金属 \\ nonferrous metals

有效地控制通货膨胀 \\ effectively control inflation

渔业 \\ fishing

增额、增值、增长 \\ increment

整顿经济秩序 \\ rectify economic order


China needs to be vigilant against the Right deviation, but primarily, it should guard against the “Left” deviation.


to modernize the country’s industry, agriculture, national defense and science and technology step by step to turn China into a strong and prosperous socialist country with a high level of culture and democracy.

主要成分 \\ dominant sector


Socialism and capitalism are not distinguished by the proportion of planned and market economy.

总工资 \\ total wages