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大鱼海棠
7月8号,十二年磨一剑的电影《大鱼海棠》终于上映。但是这部让人翘首以盼多年的电影并没有像导演预想的那样赢得满堂喝彩。狗血的剧情,浮夸的人设让它得到了网友的大片吐槽。然而尽管有着漫天的槽点与雷点,这部电影依然获得了不低的票房。
凭良心说,这部充满了中国艺术元素的电影虽然没有导演吹捧的那样天下无双,但也绝不像某些网友贬的那么一无是处。在这里,我们不谈它的剧情,也不论它的褒贬,只说说它的灵感来源。
导演曾说是《逍遥游》给了他灵感。众所周知,庄子有着天马行空的想象力,他的《逍遥游》更是写的雄奇怪诞,汪洋恣肆。那么你们知道林语堂翻译的英文版的《逍遥游》吗?
A Happy Excursion
北冥有鱼,其名曰鲲。鲲之大,不知其几千里也。化而为鸟,其名而鹏,鹏之背,不知其几千里也;怒而飞,其翼若垂天之云。
In the northern ocean there is a fish, called the k’un, I do not know how many thousand li in size. This k’un changes into a bird, called the p’eng. Its back is I do not know how many thousand li in breadth. When it is moved, it flies, its wings obscuring the sky like clouds.

是鸟也,海运则将徙於南冥;南冥者,天池也。《齐谐》者,志怪者也。《谐》之言曰:“鹏之徙於南冥也,水击三千里,抟扶摇而上者九万里,去以六月息者也。”
When on a voyage, this bird prepares to start for the Southern Ocean, the Celestial Lake. And in the Records of Marvels we read that when the peng flies southwards, the water is smitten for a space of three thousand li around, while the bird itself mounts upon a great wind to a height of ninety thousand li, for a flight of six months’ duration.

野马也,尘埃也,生物之以息相吹也。天之苍苍,其正色邪?其远而无所至极邪?其视下也,亦若是则已矣。
There mounting aloft, the bird saw the moving white mists of spring, the dust-clouds, and the living things blowing their breaths among them. It wondered whether the blue of the sky was its real color, or only the result of distance without end, and saw that the things on earth appeared the same to it.

且夫水之积也不厚,则其负大舟也无力;覆杯水於坳堂之上,则芥为之舟,置杯焉则胶,水浅而舟大也。
If there is not sufficient depth, water will not float large ships. Upset a cupful into a hole in the yard, and a mustard-seed will be your boat. Try to float the cup, and it will be grounded, due to the disproportion between water and vessel.

风之积也不厚,则其负大翼也无力;故九万里,则风斯在下矣,而后乃今培风;背负青天,而莫之夭阏者,而后乃今将图南。
So with air .If there is not sufficient a depth, it cannot support large wings. And for this bird, a depth of ninety thousand li is necessary to bear it up. Then, gliding upon the wind, with nothing save the clear sky above, and no obstacles in the way, it starts upon its journey to the south.

蜩与学鸠笑之曰:我决起而飞,枪榆枋而止,时则不至,而控於地而已矣。奚以之九万里而南为?”适莽苍者,三餐而反,腹犹果然;适百里者,宿舂粮;适千里者,三月聚粮;之二虫,又何知?
A cicada and a young dove laughed, saying, “Now, when I fly with all my might, ’tis as much as I can do to get from tree to tree. And sometimes I do not reach, but fall to the ground midway. What then can be the use of going up ninety thousand li to start for the south?” He who goes to the countryside taking three meals with him comes back with his stomach as full as when he started. But he who travels a hundred li must take ground rice enough for an overnight stay. And he who travels a thousand li must supply himself with provisions for three months. Those two little creatures, what should they know?

小知不及大知,小年不及大年。奚以知其然也?朝菌不知晦朔,蟪蛄不知春秋,此小年也。楚之南有冥灵者,以五百岁为春,五百岁为秋;上古有大椿者,以八千岁为春,八千岁为秋。此大年也。而彭祖乃今以久特闻,众人匹之,不亦悲?
Small knowledge has not the compass of great knowledge any more than a short year has the length of a long year. How can we tell that this is so? The fungus plant of a morning knows not the alternation of day and night. The cicada knows not the alternation of spring and autumn. Theirs are short years. But in the south of Chu there is a mingling (tree) whose spring and autumn are each of five hundred years’ duration. And in former days there was a large tree which had a spring and autumn each of eight thousand years. Yet, Peng Tsu is known for reaching a great age and is still, alas! An object of envy to all!

汤之问棘也是已。“穷发之北,有冥海者,天池也。有鱼焉,其广数千里,未有知其修者,其名为鲲。有鸟焉,其名为鹏,背若泰山,翼若垂天之云,抟扶摇羊角而上者九万里,绝云气,负青天,然后图南,且适南冥也。”
It was on this very subject that the Emperor Tang spoke to Chi, as follows: “At the north of Chiungta, there is a Dark Sea, the Celestial Lake. In it there is a fish several thousand li in breadth, and I know not how many in length. It is called the k’un. There is also a bird, called the p’eng, with a back like Mount Tai, and wings like clouds across the sky. It soars up upon a whirlwind to a height of ninety thousand li, far above the region of the clouds, with only the clear sky above it. And then it directs its flight towards the Southern Ocean. ”

斥鷃笑之曰:“彼且奚适也?我腾跃而上,不过数仞而下,翱翔蓬蒿之间,此亦飞之至也。而彼且奚适也?”此小大之辩也。
And a lake sparrow laughed, and said: Pray, what may that creature be going to do? I rise but a few yards in the air and settle down again, after flying around among the reeds. That is as much as any one would want to fly. Now, wherever can this creature be going to?” Such, indeed, is the difference between small and great.

故夫知效一官,行比一乡,德合一君,而征一国者,其自视也,亦若此矣。而宋荣子犹然笑之。且举世誉之而不加劝,举世非之而不加沮,定乎内外之分,辩乎荣辱之境,斯已矣。彼其於世,未数数然也;虽然,犹有未树也。
Take, for instance, a man who creditably fills some small office, or whose influence spreads over a village, or whose character pleases a certain prince. His opinion of himself will be much the same as that lake sparrow’s. The philosopher Yung of Sung would laugh at such a one. If the whole world flattered him, he would not be affected thereby, nor if the whole world blamed him would he be dissuaded from what he was doing. For Yung can distinguish between essence and superficialities, and understand what is true honor and shame. Such men are rare in their generation. But even he has not established himself.

夫列子御风而行,泠然善也,旬有五日而后反,彼於致福者,未数数然也;此虽免乎行,犹有所待者也。
Now Liehtse could ride upon the wind. Sailing happily in the cool breeze, he would go on for fifteen days before his return. Among mortals who attain happiness, such a man is rare. Yet although Liehtse could dispense with walking, he would still have to depend upon something.

若夫乘天地之正,而御六气之辩,以游无穷者,彼且恶乎待哉?
As for one who is charioted upon the eternal fitness of Heaven and Earth, driving before him the changing elements as his team to roam through the realms of the Infinite, upon what, then, would such a one have need to depend?

故曰:“至人无己,神人无功,圣人无名。”
Thus it is said, “The perfect man ignores self; the divine man ignores achievement; the true Sage ignores reputation.”

尧让天下於许由,曰:“日月出矣,而爝火不息,其於光也,不亦难乎?时雨降矣,而犹浸灌,其於泽也,不亦劳乎?夫子立而天下治,而我犹尸之,吾自视缺然,请致天下。”
The Emperor Yao wished to abdicate in favor of Hsu Yu, saying, “If, when the sun and moon are shining, the torch is still lighted, would it be not difficult for the latter to shine? If, when the rain has fallen, one should still continue to water the fields, would this not be a waste of labor? Now if you would assume the reins of government, the empire would be well governed, and yet I am filling this office. I am conscious of my own deficiencies, and I beg to offer you the Empire.”

许由曰:“子治天下,天下既已治也,而我犹代子,吾将为名乎?名者,实之宾也,吾将为宾乎?鹪鹩巢於深林,不过一枝,偃鼠饮河,不过满腹。归休乎君!予无所用天下为,庖人虽不治庖,尸祝不越樽俎而代之矣。”
“You are ruling the Empire, and the Empire is already well ruled,” replied Hsu Yu. “Why should I take your place? Should I do this for the sake of a name? A name is but the shadow of reality, and should I trouble myself about the shadow? The tit, building its nest in the mighty forest, occupies but a single twig. The beaver slakes its thirst from the river, but drinks enough only to fill its belly. I would rather go back: I have no use for the empire! If the cook is unable to prepare the funeral sacrifices, the representative of the worshipped spirit and the officer of prayer may not step over the wines and meats and do it for him.”

肩吾问於连叔曰:“吾闻言於接舆,大而无当,往而不返,吾惊怖其言,犹河汉而无极也!大有迳庭,不近人情焉。”
Chien Wu said to Lien Shu, “I heard Chieh Yu: talk on high and fine subjects endlessly. I was greatly startled at what he said, for his words seemed interminable as the Milky Way, but they are quite detached from our common human experience.”

连叔曰:“其言谓何哉?”
“What was it?” asked Lien Shu.

曰:“藐姑射之山,有神人居焉。肌肤若冰雪,淖约若处子。不食五谷, 吸风饮露,乘云气,御飞龙,而游乎四海之外;其神凝,使物不疵疠,而年谷熟,吾以是狂而不信也。”
“He declared,” replied Chien Wu, “that on the Miao-ku-yi mountain there lives a divine one, whose skin is white like ice or snow, whose grace and elegance are like those of a virgin, who eats no grain, but lives on air and dew, and who, riding on clouds with flying dragons for his team, roams beyond the limit’s of the mortal regions. When his spirit gravitates, he can ward off corruption from all things, and bring good crops. That is why I call it nonsense, and do not believe it.”

连叔曰:“然,瞽者无以与乎文章之观,聋者无以与乎锺鼓之声,岂唯形骸有聋盲哉?夫知亦有之;是其言也,犹时女也。之人也,之德也,将旁礴万物以为一,世蕲乎乱,孰弊弊焉以天下为事!之人也,物莫之伤;大浸稽天而不溺,大旱金石流,土山焦而不热。是其尘垢秕糠,将犹陶铸尧舜者也,孰肯以物为事?”
“Well,” answered Lien Shu, “you don’t ask a blind man’s opinion of beautiful designs, nor do you invite a deaf man to a concert. And blindness and deafness are not physical only. There is blindness and deafness of the mind. His words are like the unspoiled virgin. The good influence of such a man with such a character fills all creation. Yet because a paltry generation cries for reform, you would have him busy himself about the details of an empire! “Objective existences cannot harm. In a flood which reached the sky, he would not be drowned. In a drought, though metals ran liquid and mountains were scorched up, he would not be hot. Out of his very dust and siftings you might fashion two such men as Yao and Shun. And you would have him occupy himself with objectives!”

宋人资章甫而适诸越,越人断发文身,无所用之。
A man of the Sung State carried some ceremonial caps to the Yueh tribes for sale. But the men of Yueh used to cut off their hair and paint their bodies, so that they had no use for such things.

尧治天下之民,平海内之政,往见四子藐姑射之山,汾水之阳,然丧其天下焉。
The Emperor Yao ruled all under heaven and governed the affairs of the entire country. After he paid a visit to the four sages of the Miao-ku-yi Mountain, he felt on his return to his capital at Fenyang that the empire existed for him no more.

惠子谓庄子曰:“魏王贻我大瓠之种,我树之成,而实五石。以盛水浆,其坚不能自也。剖之以为瓢,则瓠落无所容。非不呺然大也,吾为其无用而掊之。”
Hueitse said to Chuangtse, “The Prince of Wei gave me a seed of a large-sized kind of gourd. I planted it, and it bore a fruit as big as a five bushel measure. Now had I used this for holding liquids, it would have been too heavy to lift; and had I cut it in half for ladles, the ladles would have been too flat for such purpose. Certainly it was a huge thing, but I had no use for it and so broke it up.”

庄子曰:“夫子固拙於用大矣!宋人有善为不龟手之药者,世世以洴澼絖为事;客闻之,请买其方百金。聚族而谋曰:‘我世世为洴澼絖,不过数金,今一朝而鬻技百金,请与之。’
“It was rather you did not know how to use large things,” replied Chuangtse. “There was a man of Sung who had a recipe for salve for chapped hands, his family having been silk-washers for generations. A stranger who had heard of it came and offered him a hundred ounces of silver for this recipe; whereupon he called together his clansmen and said, ‘We have never made much money by silk-washing. Now, we can sell the recipe for a hundred ounces in a single day. Let the stranger have it.’
“客得之,以说吴王。越有难,吴王使之将,冬,与越人水战,大败越人。裂地而封之。能不龟手一也,或以封,或不免於洴澼絖,则所用之异也。今子有五石之瓠,何不虑以为大樽,而浮於江湖,而忧其瓠落无所容?则夫子犹有蓬之心也夫!”
“The stranger got the recipe, and went and had an interview with the Prince of Wu. The Yueh State was in trouble, and the Prince of Wu sent a general to fight a naval battle with Yueh at the beginning of winter. The latter was totally defeated, and the stranger was rewarded with a piece of the King’s territory. Thus, while the efficacy of the salve to cure chapped hands was in both cases the same, its applications were different. Here, it secured a title; there, the people remained silk-washers. Now as to your five-bushel gourd, why did you not make a float of it, and float about over river and lake? And you complain of its being too flat for holding things! I fear your mind is stuffy inside.”

惠子谓庄子曰:“吾有大树,人谓之樗,其大本拥肿而不中绳墨,其小枝卷曲而不中规矩,立之涂,匠者不顾。今子之言,大而无用,众所同去也。”
Hueitse said to Chuangtse, “I have a large tree, called the ailanthus. Its trunk is so irregular and knotty that it cannot be measured out for planks; while its branches are so twisted that they cannot be cut out into discs or squares. It stands by the roadside, but no carpenter will look at it. Your words are like that tree — big and useless, of no concern to the world.”

庄子曰:“子独不见狸狌乎?卑身而伏,以候敖者,东西跳梁,不辟高下,中於机辟,死於罔罟。今夫斄牛,其大若垂天之云。此能为大矣,而不能执鼠。今子有大树,患其无用,何不树之於无何有之乡,广莫之野?彷徨乎无为其侧,逍遥乎寝卧其下。不夭斤斧;物无害者,无所可用,安所困苦哉!”
“Have you never seen a wild cat,” rejoined Chuangtse, “crouching down in wait for its prey? Right and left and high and low, it springs about, until it gets caught in a trap or dies in a snare. On the other hand, there is the yak with its great huge body. It is big enough in all conscience, but it cannot catch mice. Now if you have a big tree and are at a loss what to do with it, why not plant it in the Village of Nowhere, in the great wilds, where you might loiter idly by its side, and lie down in blissful repose beneath its shade? There it would be safe from the axe and from all other injury. For being of no use to others, what could worry its mind?”

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