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  下面的内容虽然与文章的题目不太相符,但是作为构成句式的基本单元--词汇,也是不容忽视的。希望大家对这些理解提出批评和指正。

“闪光”之说:

1、shine:照耀,指光稳定发射;

2、glitter:闪光,指光不稳定发射;

3、glare:耀眼,表示光的强度最大;

4、sparkle:闪烁,指发射微细的光度。

“打破”之说:

1、break:一般用语,经打击或施加压力而破碎;

2、crack:出现了裂缝,但还没有变成碎片;

3、crush:指从外面用力向内或从上向下压而致碎;

4、demolish:破坏,铲平或削平(如土壤,建筑物,城堡等);

5、destroy:在肉体上、精神上或道义上彻底摧毁,使之无法复原;

6、shatter:突然使一个物体粉碎;

7、smash:指由于突如其来的一阵暴力带一声响而彻底粉碎。

有关“死”之说:

1、去世,与世长辞:to pass away;

2、寿终: to close (end) one’s day;

3、咽气,断气: to breathe one’s last;

4、归西: to go west;

5、了解尘缘: to pay the debt of nature;

6、命归黄泉: to depart to the world of shadows;

7、见阎王: to give up the gost;

8、翘辫子: to kick the bucket;

9、蹬腿: to kick up one’s heels;

10、不吃饭: to lay down one’s knife and fork.

有关“怀孕”(pregnant)之说:

1、she is having baby;

2、she is expecting;

3、she is in a family way;

4、she is in a deliacate condition;

5、she is in an interesting condition;

6、she is knitting little booties.

“broken”涵义种种:

1、a broken man:一个绝望的人;

2、a broken soldier:一个残废的军人;

3、broken money:零花钱;

4、a broken promise:背弃的诺言;

5、broken English:蹩脚的英语;

6、a broken spirit:消沉的意志;

7、a broken heart:破碎的心。

准确理解“kill”(后面附词义):

1、he killed the man:杀;

2、he killed the dog:宰;

3、he killed time down at the park:消磨;

4、he killed his chance of success:断送;

5、he killed the motion when it came from the committee:否决;

6、he killed himself by overwork:致死;

7、he killed the spirit of the group:抹杀;

8、he killed three bottles of whiskey in a week:喝光;

9、kill the peace:扼杀;

10、kill the friendship:终止;

11、kill a marriage:解除

“声誉”种种:

1、fame:褒义,指关于一个人的人格、行为、才能等方面的优点;

2、reputation和repute差不多,可褒义可贬义,指对人或物的评价、看法,词义较窄;

3、distinction:褒义,指因职衔、地位或人格所造成的,通常包含“优越于人,与众不同”;

4、renown:褒义,指显赫的声誉或应该得到的荣誉;

5、notoriety:贬义,与fame相对应。

“空空如也”:

1、hollow:表示“空洞的,虚的,不实的,下陷的”,可以和tree, voice, sound, cheeks等连用;

2、vacant:表示“没人占用的,出缺的”,常和position, room, house, seat等连用;

3、empty:表示“空的,一无所有的”,可以和house, room, cup, box, stomatch, head, words等连用.

你能理解“or”吗?

1、连接两个对等的事物或人,可译为“或”,“或者”;

2、前后为同一个事物时,应译为“即”,“或称”,“或作”

The exact mechanism of Yutin, or vitamin P as is sometimes called, on the capillary wall is not understood.

附译文:路丁,即有时所称的维生素P,其对毛细血管壁的确切作用(机理)还不了解。

3、连接两组数字,代表不同单位的同一数量时,一般译为“合”,“等于”;

Normal temperature in man is 98.6F or 37C(遗憾的时表温度上标我不会)。

4、从or中导致方面结果时,应译为“否则”;

Hurry up, or you will be late.

5、”or so” “左右”;”or more” 以上;”or rather” 甚至

“general”涵义种种:

1、全身麻醉:general anesthesia

2、普查,集体检查:general check-up

3、一般健康情况:general health condition

4、综合性医院:general hospital

5、总路线:genegral line

6、大纲:general outline

7、弥漫性腹膜炎:general peritonitis

8、普通医师:general practitioner

9、总查(病)房:general purpose

10、秘书长:general secretary

你能“定”下来吗?

1、set a date:决定日期

2、set an example:树立榜样

3、set fruit:结果子

4、set a fire:点火

5、set a severed limb:断肢再接

6、set sail:开航,起航

7、set the camera lens:调整(相机)镜头

8、set a pen to paper:动笔,下笔

9、set a new task:提出新任务

10、set down all items:记下所有项目

11、set oneself to learn from:决心向……学习

你知道这有多“重”?

1、heavy applause:热烈的鼓掌

2、heavy gait:沉重的步态

3、heavy chemicals:大量生产的化学药品

4、heavy sea:波涛汹涌的海面

5、heavy sleep:熟睡

6、heavy smoker:烟瘾大的人

7、heavy current:强电流

8、heavy eater:食量大的人

9、heavy task:繁重的任务

10、heavy food:油腻而难消化的食物

11、heavy traffic:拥挤的交通

12、heavy weather:恶劣的天气

13、heavy road:泥泞的路

14、heavy rain:大雨

15、heavy clouds:厚云

16、heavy crops:丰收

17、heavy frost:浓霜

18、heavy wine:烈酒

19、heavy news:悲痛的消息

20、heavy heart:忧愁的心

21、heavy fire:猛烈的炮火

22、heavy bread:没有发酵好的面包

23、heavy wire:粗线

24、heavy load:重载

25、heavy storm:暴风雨

26、heavy reader:沉闷冗长的读物

“强度”怎么说?

1、intensity:指强烈的程度,多用于磁、电、热、光、声、火、劳动等抽象或非(易于触摸到的)实体。

例:colour intensity intensity of light

2、strength:指坚强的程度,用于可触摸到的具体实物抗拒能力的大小。

strength of cement(水泥标号) engine strength

working strength

你打牢“基础”了吗?

1、base:指有形、具体的基础、基地。

base line:基线

base plate:底座

cotton base:产棉区

data base:数据库

paint base:底漆

raw material base:原料基地

2、basic:基本的,碱性的

basic Bessemer steel:底吹碱性转炉钢

basic hole:基孔

basic industry:基础工业

basic material:碱性材料

3、basis:无形、抽象的基础、根据

econimic basis:经济基础

hole basis:基孔制

scientific basis:科学根据

4、foundation:指大厦建筑物的地基,引申为“根据”

foundation bolt:地脚螺栓

material foundation of society:社会物质基础

reinforced concrete foundation:钢筋混凝土基础

The rumour has no foundation:这传闻毫无根据

了解这些“组织”吗?

1、construction:指“构造”(将零部件装配,组合在一起成为整体的方式);“结构”(各组成部分的搭配和排列,建筑物上承担重力部分的构造)

aircraft construction:飞机构造

welded construction:焊接结构

This machine is simple in construction:这种机器构造简单

body construction:车身(机身、弹体)构造

capital construction:基本建设

physical construction:机械构造

prefabricated construction:预制构造

ships of similiar construction:结构类似的船

2、structure:“结构、组织”

age structure:年龄构成

atomic structure:原子结构

steel stucture:钢结构

shell stucture:薄层结构

brick stucture:砖建筑物

geological stucture:地质构造

market stucture:市场结构

microscopic stucture:显微组织

The human body is a wonderful stucture:人体是个奇妙的构造物

the stucture of a plant:一种植物的构造

“charge”涵义知多少?

1、费用:service charge 服务费;

2、责任:in charge of 负责;

3、装料:furnace charge 炉料;

4、电荷:induced charge 感应电荷;

5、装药:shaped charge 锥孔炸药

再解“develop”

1、发展:

agriculture develpopment

social development

industrial develpopment

development in foreign affairs

2、开发

water-power development

oil-field development

development of natural resouerces

interllectual development

3、研制

advanced development:远景产品研制,样机试制

under development

engineering development

operatinal development产:品改进性研制

exploratory development:探索性研制

4、开拓

ore development

lateral development:水平开拓

5、展开(用于数学)

series development:级数展开

development of function:函数的展开

6、显影

chemical development:化学显影

over development:显影过度

time development:定时显影

The shade meaning of “power”:

【数学】乘方、幂

The sixth power of two is sixty-four.

【力学】

力:horse power

功率:rated power 额定功率

【电学】

电力:power network

电源:power switch

功率:power export

【化学】

能:chemical power

本领:catalytic power催化本领

化合价:Aluminium has a conmbining power of three.

【机械】

动力:power shaft传动轴

力:brake power

【社会】

力量:knowlege is power

权力:politica power

强国:superpower

The shade meaning of “system”:

【机电】

系统:electric light system 电照明系统

lubricating system 润滑系统

电力网:system fault 电力网故障

装置:tierod-crank system 连杆曲柄装置

top charging system 炉顶装料装置

设备:loading system 转载设备

制:basic hole(shaft) system 基孔(轴)制

【数学】组:system of equations

【力学】系:system of forces

【化学】法:acid system 酸法

【社会】

体系:industrial system

制度:social system

方法:a new system of teaching foreign language

The shade meaning of “work”:

工作:work experience

工件:stamp work 模锻工件

工厂: NO.1 Motor Vehical Works

工事:defence works

著作:new works on acupuncture 针刺疗法新书

功:mechanical work

运转:The machine works well.

加工:The wood works easily.

起作用:The medicine works.

造成:work wonders(miracles)创造奇迹

The shade meaning of “sound”:

【声音】sound wave

【听起来】The plan sounds reasonable.

【发音】sound every syllable! 每个音节都要发音。

The ship moved slowly forward sounding as she went. 航船慢速前进,一路锤测水深。

【完好的】sound metal 优质金属

【牢固的】sound casting 坚实的铸件

The sahde meaning of “round”:

【圆的】round plate

【整的】a round ton

【环形】a round trip 往还一次

【圆角】fillet and round 内圆角和外圆角

【弹】guided round (missile) 导弹

【围绕】The moon moves round the earth.

【到处】show sb round

【使圆】round the corners

【舍入】3.14159 rounded to four decimals becomes 3.1416

“废物”之说:

1、litter:并不是真正意义上的废物,而是用后散置的“杂物”,相当于odds and ends,或索性说是残余物(leavings)

Always pick up your litter after a picnic.

2、waste:真正的废物,美国人常用trash,此字还有“残屑”、或“垃圾”之意。

垃圾篓美国人用trash can;英国用dustbin.美国人把南方的穷苦白人叫the (poor) white trash;可见,此词又可作“无价值的人或物”解释。

That book is mere trash.

3、rubbish:范围广,真正的废物。也可表惊叹“Rubbish(胡说!)”

英国人常说:That book is all rubbish.

4、厨房残屑:kitchen refuse或refuse:此词做废物或无用之物讲,但一般指固体废物,不指可排泄的垃圾。

5、到垃圾的地方:a dumping ground; a dumping-place for rubbish; a rubbish dump.

6、junk:垃圾、废物。原意是“破烂货”。

His writing is all junk.

7、废人、社会渣滓:human waste; debris; dregs of population; off-scourings of humanity; dross of mankind; hobo

He is now a “has-been”(他现成了废物)=He outlived his usefulness.

Commitment译法:

动词commit在字典中涵义:

1、 犯、行、作:commit a crime; commit a blunder; commit murder; commit suicide

2、 委托、付诸:commit some funds to the care of trustees(委托资金与保管委员会);commit a bill(议会将议案交付委员审查);commit thoughts to writing(将想法写出来);commit something to memory(暗记某事);

3、 承担:If you agreed to give a number of lectures, help to pay your brother’s school expenses, and give $ 500 a year for clothes, you have quite a lot of commitments.

4、 (束缚身体之意转为)牵累,陷入,献身:Do not commit yourself(勿自限累);commit oneself to a promise;

例析:

1、 In the last decade, however, we have sought to fulfill the goal with greater zeal, greater commitment, and greater success than at any period in our history.

在过去十年中,我们比历史上任何时期都力求更加热心地、更加献身地、更加成功地来达到这个目标(献身)。

2、(李光耀对新加坡人的定义)A Singaporean is a person who feels committed to upholding society as it is―multi-racial, tolerant, accommodating, forward-looking—and who is prepared to stake his life for the community.

一个新加坡人就是一个对现存的多元种族、容忍互助而又高瞻远瞩的社会,以献身精神来支持它,并装备为它付出生命的人(献身的)。

3、I believe that both candidates should make it absolutely clear that they share a basic commitment to the success of the negotiations now taking place in Paris.

我相信两党的总统候选人,都应绝对明确地表示,他们对于促成现在巴黎举行的商谈成功,具有基本的言语约束(言约)。

4、 he second imperative of our policy for peace is that we must meet our commitment and keep our promises to use our strength to oppose aggression.

我们和平政策的第二条诫命,就是我们必须尽我们的义务,守住我们的诺言,竭尽所能,反抗侵略(诺言)。

5、 Vietnam may be a bitter hoax or it may be a major commitment in the defense of freedom, but it will go away because we yell “foul”; it will not fade because we blow retreat.

越南可能是一种痛苦的玩笑,也可能是在保卫自由中的一个大的牵累,它不会因为我们大叫讨厌而走开,也不会因为我们鸣金收兵而消失(牵累)

6、 The report said that new commitments of US$50.7 million during fiscal year 1968 raised total investments of the International Finance Corporation in private enterprises in its member countries to US$271.8 million in 39 countries.

1968年会计年度新的投资计有5070万美元,使得国际金融公司在其他会员国的私人企业总投资,39个国家共达27180万美元(投资)。

7、 The Japanese have faithfully observed their commitments. 日本人忠实地遵守了投降条件(条件)。

其他:

an all-around commitment(全面的约束)

to give a precipitate commitment(给以轻率的言约)

保险种种:

accident insurance:意外保险

accident death insurance:意外死亡保险

accounts receivable insurance:应收帐款保险

additional insurance:加保

agricultural insurance:农业保险

air transport insurance:空运保险

air transportation cargo insurance:空运货物保险

aircraft hull insurance:飞机机身保险

aircraft passenger insurance:飞机乘客保险

all risks insurance:综合保险

annuity insurance:年金保险

automobile insurance:汽车保险

aviation insurance:航空保险

aviation liability insurance:航空责任保险

aviation personal accident insurance:航空人身意外保险

bad debt insurance:坏帐保险

baggage insurance:行李保险

bailee’s customers insurance:受托人代客保险

basic insurance:基本保险

blanket insurance:总括保险

block insurance:船舶保险

boiler explosion insurance:锅炉爆炸保险

bond insurance:债券保险

bonding insurance:保证保险

broker insurance:保险掮客

building insurance:建筑物保险

burglary insurance:盗窃保险

business interruption insurance:业务中断保险

business liability insurance:营业责任保险

capital insurance:资本保险

cargo insurance:货物保险

cargo marine insurance:海洋货运保险

cargo transportation insurance:货物运输保险

carrier’s liability insurance:承运人责任保险

cash messenger insurance:现金运送保险

casualty insurance:不幸事故保险,灾害保险

cattle insurance:家畜保险

cede insurance:分保

child’s insurance:儿童保险

civilliability insurance:民事责任保险

civil responsibility insurance:责任保险

collective insurance:集体保险

collective accident insurance:集体灾害保险

collision insurance:碰撞保险

commercial credit insurance:商业信用保险

commission insurance:佣金保险

compensation insurance:职工赔偿保险

comprehensive insurance:综合保险, 全程保险

compulsory insurance:强制保险

concurrent insurance:同时保险

consequential damage insurance:间接损害保险

consequential loss insurance:间接损失保险

consignment export insurance:寄售输出保险

consignment sale export insurance:寄销出口保险

consignment stock insurance:寄销货物保险

continued insurance:继续保险

convertible insurance:转换保险

cost and insurance:成本加保险价

credit insurance:信用保险

credit life insurance:信用人寿保险(借款人死亡时,应将赔偿金付给放款人)

crop insurance:作物保险

damage insurance:损失保险

death insurance:死亡保险

deferred insurance:搁置保险

deposit insurance:存款保险

disability insurance:残废保险

disbursements insurance:船舶费用保险

domestic insurance:家计保险

domestic animal transportation insurance:家畜运输保险

double insurance:双重保险

duty insurance:关税保险

earthquake insurance:地震保险

economic policy insurance:经济政策保险

education insurance:教育保险

elevator liability insurance:电梯责任保险

employee’s pension insurance:职工退休养老保险

employer’s liability insurance:雇主责任保险职工伤害保险

employment insurance:就业保险

endowment insurance:人寿定期保险, 养老保险,储蓄保险

endowment life insurance:人寿定期保险

engineering insurance:工程保险

erection insurance:机器安装保险

excess insurance:超额保险

exchange risk insurance:外汇风险保险

exhibition insurance:展览保险

expected profit insurance:预期利润保险

explosion insurance:爆炸保险

export insurance:出口保险,输出保险

extended terms insurance:延期保险

external investment principal insurance:国外投资本金保险

facultative insurance:临时保险

family income insurance:家庭收入保险

farm insurance:农业保险

fermentation insurance:发酵保险

fidelity insurance:职工忠诚保险

fire insurance:火灾保险,火险

fiscal insurance:租税保险

fixed term insurance:定期保险

flood insurance:洪水保险

forced insurance:强制保险

foreign exchange fluctuation insurance:外汇波动保险

fraternal insurance:互助救济保险

freight insurance:运费保险

frost insurance:霜害保险

full value insurance:全值保险

general average disbursement insurance:共同海损费用保险

general export insurance:普通输出保险

government employee insurance:公务人员保险

group insurance:团体保险

group life insurance:团体人身保险

guarantee insurance:保证保险,盗窃意外保险

hail insurance:雹害保险

harvest insurance:收获保险

hazardous insurance:危险物品保险

health insurance:健康保险

hire purchase credit insurance:租赁信用保险

homeowner’s insurance :房主保险

hospitalization insurance:医疗保险

hull insurance:船舶保险,运输工具保险

hypothecation insurance:抵押保险

imaginary profit insurance:预期利益保险

immovable insurance:不动产保险

inconvertibility insurance:国外投资本利不能兑换汇回保险

long life insurance:长寿保险

straight life insurance:终身保险

strike expenses insurance:罢工追加费用保险

subsidiary insurance:附属保险

supplementary insurance:追加保险

survivorship insurance:共有财产中归后死者所得的联合保险

term insurance:定期保险

theft insurance:盗窃保险

time insurance:定期保险

time hull insurance:船舶定期保险

title insurance:产权保证保险

insurance for adult:成人保险

insurance for medical care:医疗保险

insurance of export-import goods:进出口货物保险

insurance of valuables:贵重物品保险

insurance or guarantee of private loans:私人贷款保险或担保

“群”的表达

观众:a crowd of spectators

一群人:a crowd of people

一群人:a throng of people

一群影迷:a throng of film fans

一群女学生:a group of girl students

一群旁观者:a group of onlookers

一群欢迎者:a troop of welcomers

一群示威者:a troop of demonstrators

注:

CROWD:无组织或者无秩序的人群;

THRONG: 为数众多的挤在一处或向前涌去的群;

GROUP:有一定组织的;

TROOP:正常行进中的群

一群才子:a galaxy of talents

一群美女:a galaxy of beauties

一群匪徒:a band of gangsters

一群劫匪:a gang of robbers

一群建筑物:a cluster of buildings

一群海岛:a cluster of islands

注:

GALAXY:出色或著名的人物群;

BAND/GANG:有明显在轻蔑色彩,强盗、匪徒等的群(帮、伙);

CLUSTER:集结物体的群(簇、堆)。

一群羊:a flock of sheep

一群鸭:a flock of ducks

一群牛:a herd of cattle

一群马:a herd of horses

一群豺狼:a pack of wolves

一群猎犬:a pack of hounds

一群猴子:a host of monkeys

一群蜜蜂:a swarm of bees

注:

FLOCK: 飞鸟家禽、牲畜等的群,尤指羊群;

HERD:大动物的群;

PACK:野兽、猎犬等的群

(文章来源:大旗网)

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